1)latar belakang kajian
2) Pernyataan masalah
3) Matlamat kajian
4) Objektif/persoalan kajian
6) metodologi - kajian tinjauan kuantitatif - soal selidik
topic centre - thp pengetahuan, kemahiran
proposal ==> kertas projek 1
pengetahuan what how, when
taksonomy bloom 3 perkara kognitif, psikomotor (kemahiran, learning style), afektif
jadi kerangka teoritikal
apa itu knowledge management?
instrumen2 menilai pentaksiran portfolio. penilaian modul / program
penilaian - ID model - buat model
modul penilaian - analisis keperluan - game - proposal analisis keperluan - modul pengaturcaraan permainan web - tgk model ID
fikirkan sesuatu di luar kemahiran
model generic ID - common cari model ID yang tak guna
pastikan org minat pengaturcaraan dgn game
java - flash
game - previous sharifah basic flash advance cikgu jalan reko
game mobile learning
nilai aspek afektif
aspek pembinaan instsrumen based on modul
bulan 9 collect data
data drp responden
instrumen soal selidik + protokol interview siap mgg ni
instrumen proposal dgn instrumen
open source buat game?
menyelia secara virtual
analisis keperluan, penilaian pend komputer pre dan post test
rubrik portfolio rubrik analitikal(detail) dan rubrik holistik ()
buat modul bercetak kena ada nilai produk pelajar, tgk based on objektif
Assessment - Tools
Rubric development and examples
Rubrics might be used in course-embedded assessment and some demonstration assessment activities. For example, an assessment center (demonstration) that incorporates a speech may use an oral presentation rubric. If the same rubric is used in assessing a classroom assignment, it is called course-embedded assessment.
Recommendations for Rubric Construction
Divide overall task into distinct subtasks that evidence student skills or comprehension/application of knowledge.
Identify both cognitive and performance components that can be assessed.
Determine whether qualitative or quantitative descriptors are going to be for each subtask- this may be influence by the purpose of the assessment ie: primarily for student feedback or for incorporating into a numerical average.
Allow for full range of skill/knowledge with clear indicators of each level of performance.
Use rubric for an evaluation of an presentation or activity.
Revise rubric as necessary
To evaluate student performance, you can select an existing rubric or create a new one.
Follow these guidelines before implementing:
Decide whether the rubric addresses the most important aspects of student performance or the course objectives to be measured.
Decide whether the rubric includes anything extraneous. If so, change the rubric or use a different one.
See if a rubric from a different subject area can be adapted to fit your needs. Reading rubrics can often be used to assess listening, writing rubrics may be adapted to assess speaking, and fine arts rubrics can sometimes be applied to several different art forms.
Make sure the rubric is clear.
Test the rubric out on some actual samples of student work.
Feel free to combine or modify rubrics to make them work better.
Creating a rubric
Follow these steps to create a new rubric:
Clearly define the assignment, including the topic, the process that students will work through, and the product they are expected to produce.
Determine the key components that you are interested in such as coherence, content, and organization for a writing assignment.
Decide what type of rubric to use (holistic/general, holistic/task specific, analytic/general, analytic/task specific) based on the type of assignment and what you are interested in evaluating. (more)
Clearly define key components. For example, what do you mean by coherence? What does coherent writing look like?
Establish clear and detailed standards for performance for each component.
Determine what the different levels of performance look like within each category of assessment. Think of the lowest, middle-range, and highest level of performance.
After you write your first paragraph of the highest level, circle the words in that paragraph that can vary.
These words will be the ones that you will change as you write the less than top-level performances.
Avoid relying on comparative language when distinguishing among performance levels. For example, don’t define the highest level of performance as thorough and accurate and the middle level as less thorough and less accurate. Find qualities and descriptors that are unique to each performance standard.
Concept words that covey various degree of performance:
Depth... Breadth... Quality... Scope... Extent... Complexity... Degrees... Accuracy
Presence to absence
Complete to incomplete
Many to some to none
Major to minor
Consistent to inconsistent
Frequency: always to generally to sometimes to rarely
Develop a scoring scale
Determine how many score levels you want to use based on the performance standards you set in step five.
Clearly define the difference between the score levels.
The scoring scale should be consistent across all key components for an analytic rubric. For example, a score of 4 for one area should be comparable to a score of 4 in another area.
Involve students in the development process:
One strategy for developing a rubric is allowing students to participate in the development process. When students are involved, the assignment itself becomes more meaningful.
For existing rubrics:
Ask students to give feedback on or to add more detail to the rubric.
For creating a new rubric:
After clearly defining the assignment for the students, they can follow the guidelines outlined above to create a rubric.
Depending on your preference you may or may not want to provide the students with the key components of the assignment and the type of rubric to create.
Students can either work in teams or as a whole class.
If students work in teams, you may want to let the students use team-based rubrics or have a class discussion about the team rubrics to reach consensus on one rubric for all students in the class.
To ease in the development process, provide students with examples of rubrics, a rubric template and previous examples of student work if available.
tugas mgg ni buat rubrik...
modul utk sek rendah
kenal pasti instrumen soal selidik + temubual
develop modul based on information on analisis keperluan
bulan 10 dah hantar semua tugasan
Portfolio approaches to assessing literacy have been described in a wide variety of publications (Flood & Lapp, 1989; Lamme & Hysmith, 1991; Matthews, 1990; Tierney, Carter, & Desai, 1991; Valencia, 1990; Wolf, 1989) so that many descriptions of portfolios exist. Generally speaking, a literacy portfolio is a systematic collection of a variety of teacher observations and student products, collected over time, that reflect a student's developmental status and progress made in literacy.
A portfolio is not a random collection of observations or student products; it is systematic in that the observations that are noted and the student products that are included relate to major instructional goals. For example, book logs that are kept by students over the year can serve as a reflection of the degree to which students are building positive attitudes and habits with respect to reading. A series of comprehension measures will reflect the extent to which a student can construct meaning from text. Developing positive attitudes and habits and increasing the ability to construct meaning are often seen as major goals for a reading program.
Multiple Products Collected over Time
Portfolios are multifaceted and begin to reflect the complex nature of reading and writing. Because they are collected over time, they can serve as a record of growth and progress. By asking students to construct meaning from books and other selections that are designed for use at various grade levels, a student's level of development can be assessed. Teachers are encouraged to set standards or expectations in order to then determine a student's developmental level in relation to those standards (Lamme & Hysmith, 1991).
Variety of Materials
Portfolios can consist of a wide variety of materials: teacher notes, teacher-completed checklists, student self- reflections, reading logs, sample journal pages, written summaries, audiotapes of retellings or oral readings, videotapes of group projects, and so forth (Valencia, 1990). All of these items are not used all of the time.
An important dimension of portfolio assessment is that it should actively involve the students in the process of assessment (Tierney, Carter, & Desai, 1991).
Effective Means of Evaluating Reading and Writing
There are many ways in which portfolios have proven effective. They provide teachers with a wealth of information upon which to base instructional decisions and from which to evaluate student progress (Gomez, Grau, & Block, 1991). They are also an effective means of communicating students' developmental status and progress in reading and writing to parents (Flood & Lapp, 1989). Teachers can use their record of observations and the collection of student work to support the conclusions they draw when reporting to parents. Portfolios can also serve to motivate students and promote student self-assessment and self-understanding (Frazier & Paulson, 1992).
Linn, Baker, and Dunbar (1991) indicate that major dimensions of an expanded concept of validity are consequences, fairness, transfer and generalizability, cognitive complexity, content quality, content coverage, meaningfulness, and cost efficiency. Portfolios are an especially promising approach to addressing all of these criteria.
Brings Assessment in Line with Instruction
Portfolios are an effective way to bring assessment into harmony with instructional goals. Portfolios can be thought of as a form of "embedded assessment"; that is, the assessment tasks are a part of instruction. Teachers determine important instructional goals and how they might be achieved. Through observation during instruction and collecting some of the artifacts of instruction, assessment flows directly from the instruction (Shavelson, 1992).
Portfolios can contextualize and provide a basis for challenging formal test results based on testing that is not authentic or reliable. All too often students are judged on the basis of a single test score from a test of questionable worth (Darling-Hammong & Wise, 1985; Haney & Madaus, 1989). Student performance on such tests can show day-to-day variation. However, such scores diminish in importance when contrasted with the multiple measures of reading and writing that are part of a literacy portfolio.
Valid Measures of Literacy
Portfolios are extremely valid measures of literacy. A new and exciting approach to validity, known as consequential validity, maintains that a major determinant of the validity of an assessment measure is the consequence that the measure has upon the student, the instruction, and the curriculum (Linn, Baker, & Dunbar, 1991). There is evidence that portfolios inform students, as well as teachers and parents, and that the results can be used to improve instruction, another major dimension of good assessment (Gomez, Grau, & Block, 1991).
portfolio asssesment http://www.nclrc.org/portfolio/modules.html
portfolio assesment - school based assesment
pentaksiran portfolio==> pentaksiran ini adalah sesuai untuk mentaksir proses dan produk serta aspek-aspek perkembangan kamajuan kreativiti dan kaji diri (introsection) pelajar di mana ia tidak ditekan dalam pentaksiran tradisional atau piawai (ronis 2000)
untuk rubrik penskoran - mempertingkat atau memperbaiki setiap kelemahan self accesment
rubrik adalah dokumen yang menerangkan tahap-tahap kualiti yang pelbagai dari peringkat yang paling rendah hingga yang paling tinggi
dikenali sebagai rubrik pengajaran yang bertujuan untuk memberitahu pealjar perincian pentaksiran dari peringkat awal
mencapah, berdasar ujian pemikiran mencapah
pengukuran kreatif spesifik kerana kandungan sesuatu domain
dinilai mengikut konteks maka ia membantu untuk memahami bagaimana konteks tersebut berinteraksi dengan bagaimana individu itu dinilai
isu pentaksiran portfolio
longgar - kandungan pf, tafsir makna skor yang diberi,
mencapai tahap mana - rubrik?
ujian pre and post - ? nak uji apa
penilaian program keseluruhan
kena ada buat program penilaian modul utk assg, pre and post
mgg depan mantap utk collect data, data collection, modul guna ID, instrument portfolio pre and post,